Tag Archives: Kim Jong Il

My authored biography of Kim Pyong Il was recently quoted in an article written by Harry J. Kazianis, published in the National Interest.


O Kuk Ryol reappeared at a concert of the DPRK National Symphony on the 28 July 2019. He was accompagned by Ri Yong Mu, and the former Prime Minister of North Korea Choe Yong Rim.

O Kuk Ryol [오극렬/呉克烈], born 1931, is a North Korean military general and, since April 2009, has been  Vice-Chairman of the National Defense Commission of the DPRK. Following a brief setback in the 1980s, O has accrued a great deal of authority in North Korea over the past two-decades. O’s rise—and the great deal of trust placed in O by his colleagues—in part stems from his family credentials and revolutionary heritage.

A Revolutionary Heritage | General O is the son of O Jung Hup, a communist revolutionary fighter who fought the Japanese alongside Kim Il-Sung, the ‘eternal president’ of the DPRK. (By some accounts, O is the nephew of O Jung Hup, not his son. In any case, O Kuk Ryol is still protected by a revolutionary lineage.) Because of the connection between their fathers, O Kuk Ryol was also a childhood friend to Kim Jong Il, opening the possibility of having been one of the Kim’s mentor in military affairs. O and Kim were furthermore nurtured by the same women as children, Kim Jong Suk, and thus share another point of connection. The theme of generational and family ties persists today, as the young Kim Jong Un is closely advised by O Se Won, a son of O Kuk Ryol.

A child of a revolutionary hero, O was educated at the prestigious Mangyongdae Revolutionary School in Pyongyang and later enrolled in Kim Il Sung University. He subsequently studied air power and learned Russian at the Frunze Military Academy, one of the most advanced academic institutes for military education in the Soviet Union. Born in Jilin Province (part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo at the time), O Kuk Ryol is also fluent in Chinese. He is also said to speak English fluently, but, like Kim Jong-Un’s supposed command of German and French, evidence for this assertion is purely anecdotal.

A Rising Political Star | In the 1960s, O Kuk Ryol jumpstarted his career in the North Korean air force  and joined the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party. According to one source, during the Yom Kippur War, O was an air pilot who helped Egyptian forces.  In 1979, he was promoted to the head of the North Korean Army. As he rose through the North Korean government, O’s support of Kim Jong-Il’s successor status was crucial during the 1980s.

In 1988, O Kuk Ryol was temporarily sidelined, as Choe Kwang, a former ally of Kim Il Sung, took over O’s leadership posts. Despite this setback, O persevered, and eventually returned to the top of the North Korean military scene in 2009. He was nominated as Vice-Chairman of the National Defense Commission, the most powerful military organization in North Korea. O, however, is not a very influential political figure—he does not belong to the Politbureau of the Korean Workers’ Party, for example.

O Kuk Ryol is a classic product of the Songun (military-first) oriented North Korean leadership style. He was an advisor to Kim Il Sung, to Kim Jong Il, and now his son, O Se Won, is an advisor to Kim Jong Un—apparently on relations with China. O Kuk Ryol is also reportedly an advisor to Kim Jong Un on operations against South Korea. If this is true, O Kuk Ryol was probably involved and partially responsible for the Cheonan Incident in March 2010.

The O Kuk Ryol Family and Kim Jong Un | Despite the lifelong ties between Kim Jong Il and O Kuk Ryol, it appears that during the last few months of Kim Jong Il’s life, O was pushed completely out of the North Korean political scene, and rumors circulated in 2011 that Kim Jong Un purged many of O’s supports. Nevertheless, it is clear that O Se won, son of O Kuk Ryol, is in fact a close advisor to Kim Jong Un. O Se Won, then, may have asked Kim Jong Un to elevate his father to the top of the North Korean Army.

Beyond O Se Won’s ties to Kim Jong Un, the O Kuk Ryol family is also famous for its involvement with the Mirim Electronic Warfare Institute—an institute which is probably at the forefront of DPRK cyber-security and training North Korean hackers today. O Se Won is also allegedly responsible for  North-Korean counterfeiting activities, an important source of income for the DPRK government. O Se Won also figures prominently into a group of third generation North Korean elites called Ponghwajo.

One of O Kuk Ryol’s other children, O Se Uk, defected to the United States in 2004. While family members of defectors are usually punished, O Kuk Ryol and O Se Won were seem to have narrowly avoided any further consequences. Indeed, it seems that O Se Won will continue to absorb more responsibilities and play a key role as North Korea transitions into the third generation of leadership.

Lectures related to the Korean Peninsula

On the 21 July, I’ve given lectures at the Japanese festival called “Animatsuri“. Animatsuri is a Japanese pop-culture festival intended mainly for youngsters. The first one was dedicated to smart cities in South Korea, the second one focused on NTIC in North Korea.

On April 11, North Korean authorities replaced its Cabinet premier and president of the Presidium of its legislative body during Thursday’s 14th SPA parliamentary meeting.

Kim Jong-un was also re-elected chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Kim Yong-nam steps down and was replaced by Choe Ryong-hae.

Premier Pak Pong-ju replaced by with Kim Jae-ryong – a senior member of the ruling Workers’ Party of Korea. Nuclear negotiator Kim Yong-chol, Foreign Minister Ri Yong-ho, and Vice Foreign Minister Choe Son-hui elected as members of the State Affairs Commission.

On the same day, Kim Jong-un ordered to promote the military ranks of commanding officers of the Korean People’s Army (KPA) on Sunday on the occasion of the birth anniversary of President Kim Il Sung. According to the order, Pak Jong-chon, Kim Kwang-hyok and Kim Myon-sik were promoted to general and thirty three persons including Jang Yong-su and Ko In-chol to major general.

On April 14, Order of Kim Il-sung were conferred on Ryu Jae-yong, Ri Chong-bok and Nam Ki-ho on the occasion of the birth anniversary of President Kim Il-sung.